Making delicious rock candy at home is fun and a good science experiment to understand saturated solution and super saturated solution. You will love to see how crystals grow on wooden stick as time passes. You can taste and eat the crystal that you will make.
3-4 Cups of sugar
Clothespin (Larger than mouth of the glass)
Wooden Skewer OR Popsicle stick
Wet the Wooden Skewer in water than roll it on the sugar so that granules of sugar stick on the surface of it.
Place the Skewer aside and let it dry completely so that granules of sugar firmly stick to it. If sugar is not firmly stuck to Skewer, it will fall in the glass and crystallization will take place in bottom of the glass so be careful.
Boil 2 cups of water into a pan
Add half cup of sugar into the boiling water while stirring and completely dissolve it. Keep adding sugar in the pan until it completely stops to dissolve further. Note: Each time you add sugar in the pan it will take to time dissolve it so be patient and keep stirring.
Pour the hot sugar solution in the glass up to the top level.
Clip the dry end of Wooden Skewer into the clothespin nearer to the spring. Now gently place the Wooden Skewer in the hot sugar solution by placing clothespin at the mouth of the glass.
Put a piece of paper on top of the glass and place it on a safe place and let it cool.
The sugar crystals starts to grow and it will take 3-7 days to complete the process.
When sugar is dissolved in water at room temperature a point will come where sugar will not dissolve further, it is called saturation point and solution is called saturated solution. When you heat that solution at boiling point more sugar will dissolve in it and again a point will reach where sugar will not dissolve further, than it is called super saturated solution.
You made this solution and placed it to cool. When this solution becomes cool, it becomes very unstable and sugar starts to form crystals in solution. The sugar granules that were stuck on the Wooden Skewer are served as seed crystals on which dissolved sugar will cling to form crystals.
Try to add food coloring in the solution for colored rock candy
If you want to make several candies of different colors. Use different glass for each color. You can make sugar and water solution in one container and mixing the color separately in each glass.
It is commonly observed that eggs will sink to bottom of the water, when they are placed in ordinary tap water. So how this happens? And how eggs float in salt water? We will do a simple classic salt water and egg experiment to understand the science behind it.
Wide drinking glass
Fill the glass with ordinary tap water.
Place the egg in it and watch the egg is sinking to bottom of the glass.
Now pick-up the egg from the glass and add 4 to 5 table spoon full of salt and stir to completely dissolve the salt in water.
Again place the egg back into the glass and watch the floating egg.
When the egg is placed in common tap water it sinks to bottom because density of water is less than the density of egg. When table salt is added to tap water its density is increased. When density of water becomes higher than the density of egg than the egg floats.
Try to float egg in middle of the water. To do this Follow these steps
Fill the glass half-full with water and add 4 tablespoons of table salt and stir well.
Fill a cup with ordinary tap water
Now gently add the water from cup to half-filled glass so two layers of different density water don’t mix together.
Now place the egg in the glass gently. If two layers water are not mixed together the egg will float in middle of the glass.
An Electromagnet is a kind of magnet which uses electric current to create magnetic field that can attract and magnetize ferromagnetic materials like Iron, Nickel and Cobalt. It is easy to make a simple electromagnet at your home from household materials.
Thin Plastic insulated wire
1.5 volt AA Battery
Wrap 20 turns of insulated wire on iron nail tightly and trim about inch of plastic coating from both ends of wire.
Connect one end of wire positive and other with negative with the help of electricity tape.
Get some paper clips and bring your electromagnet near them. You will see paper clips will be attracted towards iron nail.
Disconnect wire from battery if wire or battery gets hot.
Want to get pleasure from natural rainbow color? without waiting for rain. By knowing science you can. In this home experiment we are going to apply same principles of real rainbow to form rainbow colors from sunlight on paper.
Small size mirror
Frying Pan (or any other similar to it)
White paper and Sunlight
Fill the frying pan with water
clean the surface of the mirror and place it it in the pan at an angle below the surface level of water.
Place your pan on sunlight so that sunlight falls on the surface of the mirror
Hold a white paper above the pan to catch the reflected rays from mirror
If your setup is correct than you should be able to watch rainbow colors on paper. If not, try to change the angle of the mirror in the pan (see the setup in the figure below)
I have taken some picture on my paper and hand check them below.
Watch the video of Rainbow on paper below
When you shine sunlight on mirror, light, first enters into water and refracts (bends). Since sunlight is combination of visible colors each color has its own frequency and wavelength so these colors refracts at different angles in this way sunlight is broken into its components that are reflected from mirror on the paper.
Try using large mirror in the water tub or swimming pool and note the results