Photosynthesis is a process used by plants to make their food. Photosynthesis word is derived from two Greek words “photo” means “light” and “synthesis” means “putting together”. You can clearly understand from these words that “putting things together using light”. Plants don’t wait for us to feed them but instead, they make their own food. They need three things to make their food, which are sunlight, water and carbon dioxide.


Plants get these materials almost everywhere because sunlight is almost everywhere, carbon dioxide is present in atmosphere and water is provided by ground and moisture in the air.

Let’s see how these things are absorbed by plants.

  • Carbon dioxide is absorbed by pores in the leaves called “stomata” when air goes through them.
  • Roots absorb the water and necessary minerals, which are sent to different parts of the plants through vessels in the stem.
  • Sunlight is absorbed by chloroplasts, which are contained in the leaves.

Process of Photosynthesis

The main role is played by chloroplasts. These are the organelles found in the cells of plant’s leaves. They contain a green chemical called “chlorophyll” which is responsible for the green color of the plants. Chlorophylls collect the sunlight and split the water (which is absorbed by roots) into hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is released into air and hydrogen is combined with carbon dioxide (collected in pores of leaves) to produce glucose for plants.

Some glucose is used to provide energy for growth of plants and some glucose is stored in leaves, fruits and roots to use them later.


Photosynthesis process is very necessary for all living things because oxygen is produced in this process, which all living things breathe. So increasing the number of plants and taking a good care of them not only provide oxygen for us but also provide food for other land animals.


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