Plants are the most important part of our ecosystem which are found in almost every part of the Earth. They are found in oceans, deserts, mountains, plains, and also in other harsh environments. No matter where the plant lives, they all grow in a somewhat similar manner. There are around 380,000 known species of plants; some species grow from seeds, while others grow from spores.
So, how do these plants grow from a seed or spore to a fully mature plant? There are many things that plants need for their growth besides just planting a seed or spore.
What Plants Need to Grow?
Plants need many things for their growth. These things are listed below:
- Water –Water is the basic ingredient of every living thing. There would be no living thing on the Earth without water. Plants need a clean supply of water to survive. They absorb the water with the help of their roots. Vascular plants transport water along with nutrients throughout their whole structure with the help of xylem tissues. If the water is not sufficient or the land is too dry, then the plants may die.
- Soil –Plants anchor their roots in the soil, which provides them with good support. Plants absorb the water and nutrients from the soil. The soil needs to be rich in nutrients for plants’ healthy growth. When the soil is not rich in nutrients, farmers use different kinds of artificial and natural fertilizers to provide the necessary nutrients to the soil.
- Air –Plants take the carbon dioxide from the air for making their food in a process called photosynthesis. The air must be clean for their healthy growth. If the air is too polluted with smoke and harmful gases, then the growth of the plant is highly affected.
- Light –Plants make their food by photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, plants get light from the Sun and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere for making food. So, plants need good exposure to sunlight. If Sunlight is not sufficient, the plants may grow thin and tall in search of light.
- Temperature –Temperature is an important factor for plant growth. Some plants are adapted to grow in hot environments. Whereas, many plants are well adapted to grow in cold environments.
- Space –Plants need sufficient space for the growth of their roots, and the necessary supply of fresh air. If plants grow very near to each other, they won’t be able to get a good space for spreading their roots. Also, the branches and leaves will become crowded, which will make it difficult for the plants for getting fresh air, sufficient nutrients from the soil, and sunlight.
Besides these things, plants need time to grow. You can’t grow a plant to its full length overnight. They will take time along with necessary things for their growth.
Growth of Stem
Stem is an important structure of vascular plants that supports the other structures of the plants such as roots, buds, shoots, and leaves. Many don’t stop their growth after reaching maturity. Instead, they grow throughout their lifespan. There are two types of growth in the stem of plants; primary growth and secondary growth.
The primary growth of the stem is referred to as the increase in the length of the stem. Whereas, secondary growth is referred to the increase in the thickness of the stem. These two types of growth are very common in woody plants such as redwood.
- Bamboos are the fastest-growing plant. They can grow about 35 inches in a single day.
- Some plants have evolved to withstand the dry climate, that can survive on very little water. These plants are called xerophytes.
- The tallest treesaround the world are Redwood. They reach a height of 91 meters (300 feet).
- Watermeal or Wolffia is the smallest flowering plant. It is about the size of a rice grain.